The origins of Pugs are unknown till date but are among the oldest breeds, believed to have originated before 400 BC. The Pug is a cute, stocky and a thickset dog and has a flat face. Pugs are miniature forms of mastiffs. Although being tough and independent, it is an adorable family companion unblinking stare and can become addictive at times. The breed has rich, glossy coat that maybe silver, apricot or black in color. The folds of skin on their ears and face should be properly cleaned as part of their grooming. They are not always quiet and docile unlike their appearance, but also vivacious and teasing. Pugs are highly sensitive to extreme temperatures. They can suffer from a variety of health issues, including, obesity, pharyngeal reflex, necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), an inflammation of the brain and meninges, which are observed in small breed of dogs such as the Maltese and Chihuahua. Some Pugs may suffer from breathing problems and skin disorders. This breed like other brachycephalic dogs, like the bulldogs and boxers are also prone to hemivertebrae. When extremely excited, they are prone to reverse sneezing and are prone to allergies due to their short muzzle. The owner of a Pug should be firm, calm, composed, confident and consistent with the directions. Their average life expectancy is about 12 to 15 years.